On June 7, the amended ordinances (the “Amended Ordinances”) geared up by the Japanese authorities to apply amendments to the Foreign Trade and Foreign Trade Act (the “FEFTA”) ended up absolutely implemented, following coming into impact on Could 8, 2020.1 The amendments to the FEFTA (the “FEFTA Amendments”) have been handed by the Japanese legislature in November 2019. In former alerts, we summarized the exceptions created by the Amended Ordinances and the outcomes of the FEFTA Amendments (in this article and below).

This client notify highlights critical considerations for international investors investing or arranging to commit into unlisted providers in Japan, together with startups.


The FEFTA and its rules, amongst other matters, impose specific limitations on foreign direct investments made by international investors. Below the FEFTA, if a international trader makes a overseas direct financial investment less than the conditions explained beneath, except if a person of a restricted quantity of exceptions applies, it needs to finish a prior submitting, which topics the transaction to substantive assessment by Japanese authorities. Other overseas direct investments that do not drop into this sort of situations may possibly have to have only a submit-closing report, which does not include substantive review.

Prior filing is typically demanded for a overseas direct financial investment by a foreign investor in which (a) the nationality or the jurisdiction of the international trader is neither Japan nor a white-outlined country (b) the Japanese enterprise into which the expense is designed, or any of its Japanese subsidiaries or joint ventures in which it shares possession equally, is engaged in a “restricted business” (a “Restricted Enterprise”) or (c) certain transactions are to be manufactured by Iran-connected parties. Due to the fact most international investors do not have significant Iran-linked company and are proven in just one of the 163 white-stated international locations and locations, the prior filing necessity arising from investments into Restricted Firms tends to be the most appropriate. After submission, there is a 30-working day waiting around time period before the overseas trader can consummate the transaction. This period is normally shortened to two weeks but may possibly be prolonged to up to 5 months if any relevant ministry decides that it requirements extra time to finish its assessment.

In mid-2019, the FEFTA routine was expanded to call for prior notification with respect to investments in Japanese firms in selected data and communications engineering (ICT)-linked businesses (see our client warn below). Like the United States’ International Financial commitment Chance Review Modernization Act of 2018 (FIRRMA), which expanded the jurisdiction of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), and the European Union’s 2019 Framework Regulation for the screening of foreign investments, this modification to the FEFTA rules was a reaction to expanding worldwide concerns about nationwide stability and the leakage of significant technological innovation. Nonetheless, this improve became pretty unpopular in the undertaking communities in Japan, since many startups in Japan, which, like anyplace else in the planet, are at the very least relatively engaged in ICT-relevant enterprises, turned topic to a routine that essential any overseas investor getting even one particular share from that startup to make a prior notification and comply with the ready time period and potential requests for information from authorities.2

The Amended Ordinances, jointly the FEFTA Amendments, now thoroughly applied, are the most the latest step in the evolution of the FEFTA regime. Even though there are other amendments that have an affect on investments into unlisted firms in Japan below the Amended Ordinances, these kinds of as the definition of “Foreign Investor,” this notify focuses on the two most significant adjustments that relate to investments into unlisted organizations. Just one is the growth of the scope of non-financial commitment steps that trigger an obligation of prior notification, and the other is the scope of obtainable exemptions to the need to make a prior notification, as discussed in element down below.

1. Software of FEFTA to Non-Expenditure Actions

In addition to foreign immediate investments into Japanese corporations, which have been the primary issue of the FEFTA, any vote by a overseas investor holding no less than one particular-third of the voting legal rights of a Japanese enterprise in favor of the amendment of the enterprise reason of such business was subject matter to a prior notification prerequisite. Further, next the implementation of the Amended Ordinances, the scope of non-expenditure actions matter to prior filing needs is expanded to contain the following steps (collectively, “Limited Steps”) taken by foreign traders with regard to Japanese firms that are engaged in Restricted Businesses:

  • Any affirmative vote by the foreign investor with respect to a proposal to elect this sort of overseas investor, or a intently connected person3 of these types of foreign trader, as a director or statutory auditor (kansayaku) of the Japanese corporation (excluding circumstances the place the international trader previously retains 50% or far more of the voting legal rights of an investee organization and has designed a prior notification to the authorities to these types of result).
  • Any affirmative vote by the overseas investor with regard to a proposal for a small business transfer (jigyou jouto), merger, enterprise split (kaisha bunkatsu), or comparable transaction, other than with regard to a proposal submitted to any shareholders’ assembly by a 3rd celebration.
  • The foreign investor’s taking on (yuzuriuke) a Restricted Small business of the Japanese enterprise by usually means of business enterprise transfer (jigyou jouto), absorption-kind firm break up (kyushu bunkatsu) or merger.
  • Grant to a overseas trader of a proxy pertaining to voting legal rights in an unlisted Japanese enterprise, irrespective of voting legal rights share,4 by folks other than other foreign traders, if the proxy relates to a vote on certain significant issues, which includes the subsequent:
    • Appointment, dismissal, or shortening of the expression of office of directors
    • Modification to content articles of incorporation to alter the company’s reason or issuance of shares with veto rights)
    • Business enterprise transfer
    • Merger or
    • Company break up (kaisha bunkatsu).

2. Prior Filing and Exemptions

In normal, below the FEFTA, if a Japanese organization into which a international investor intends to make a international immediate financial investment is engaged in a Limited Enterprise (see this client inform for a record of Restricted Corporations), the overseas trader is necessary to file a prior notification unless of course a prior submitting exemption applies. It ought to also be mentioned that the prior submitting exemptions in typical implement only to exempt certain international direct investments and do not exempt overseas traders from the obligation of prior notification with respect to any of the Restricted Actions described higher than.

The Amended Ordinances generate a established of new exemptions for investments into shown Japanese businesses, but for unlisted Japanese firms, the only potentially applicable prior filing exemption is what is known as the “General Exemption”. In purchase for this prior filing exemption for investments in unlisted businesses to implement, a few significant criteria have to be fulfilled: very first, such international trader have to not have a record of sanction or corrective buy because of to violation of the FEFTA or be a international point out-owned organization or comparable entity (other than for sovereign wealth cash and general public pension funds accredited by the Japanese Minister of Finance), second, the unlisted Japanese enterprise into which the expense is built need to not be engaged in a “core” Limited Organization, and, third, specific “non-managerial involvement conditions” should be satisfied.

Core Restricted Enterprises. From between the several groups of company specified “restricted” underneath the FEFTA routine, the Amended Ordinances identify a separate team of distinctive importance, referred to as “core” Restricted Company. For a summary of the enterprises provided in this group, please see our client warn dated March 27, 2020. In purchase for the Standard Exemption to apply, the unlisted Japanese enterprise into which the international investor intends to invest need to not be engaged in a core Restricted Business enterprise (i.e., the Restricted Business in which it is engaged will be a single of the non-main Restricted Enterprises).

Non-Managerial Involvement Conditions. To satisfy the non-managerial involvement ailments, neither the international investor nor any “closely-connected person”5 of the overseas investor might provide as a director (torishimariyaku) or a statutory auditor (kansayaku) of the issuer. In addition, a international investor need to not make any proposal, by itself or by other shareholders, at any shareholders’ assembly of the issuer, with regard to the transfer or abolishment of any enterprise constituting a Restricted Business. Even further, a overseas trader will have to not have accessibility to non-community complex information and facts pertaining to any Limited Enterprise of the issuer. According to an solution from the Ministry of Finance in the community comment process, the definition of “non-public specialized information” is to be interpreted in accordance with the definition of “trade secret” underneath the Unfair Competitiveness Avoidance Act of Japan. Information and facts about the work terms and payment of officers, etcetera., and economic facts of the issuer, could not be thought of “non-community technological information”. Also, if this kind of information and facts is supplied voluntarily by the issuer to the foreign trader, it could not be thought of non-community technological info. Even so, if these details is furnished by means of the software of the foreign investor’s affect centered on its shareholding or voting legal rights, the details could not be regarded as to be supplied voluntarily by the issuer.

Even further, it ought to be noted that immediately after a overseas investor’s acquisition of shares in reliance on a prior submitting exemption, if, for instance, the pursuing variations are manufactured to the attributes of a foreign trader, a put up-closing report is necessary:

  • there has been a change of 10% or extra in the shareholders of the foreign investor
  • a overseas government or a state-owned enterprise has turn out to be a shareholder with 10% or additional of these international investor’s voting rights or
  • an officer of the foreign trader has become an formal of a foreign govt or has been appointed by a overseas govt.

Ultimately, even when investing in a Japanese firm that is not engaged in a Restricted Small business, or when utilizing a prior filing exemption to make investments in a organization conducting a Limited Enterprise, a overseas investor is however expected to file a post-closing report following the consummation of the expenditure.

Takeaways for Japan-Primarily based Startups and Non-Japanese Investors

1. Consider In advance

Equally Japan-based startups and non-Japanese traders must address at the extremely beginning of time period sheet conversations no matter whether the expense by this kind of investor would be subject to the prior submitting requirement less than the FEFTA and, if so, whether or not to find an accessible exemption. In this regard, even though the Japanese governing administration publishes the record of all detailed providers in Japan to categorize whether or not they are conducting Restricted Enterprises or core Restricted Corporations, these a database is not obtainable for unlisted providers. As these, a very careful assessment by startups on their own and session with their counsel, as effectively as the Financial institution of Japan, ought to be conducted.

This exercise is essential, since it could possibly materially delay the timing of closing thanks to the 30-working day ready interval after the filing (subject matter to shortening or extension of this sort of interval) as mentioned higher than.

2. Drafting of Financial investment Agreements

From the overseas investor’s side, not only should the clearance of the prior submitting approach pursuant to the FEFTA be a situation to closing (if it is vital to make this kind of a prior submitting), but they ought to also ask for that corporations provide in a obtain agreement or similar doc proper representations and warranties as to the classes of organization that the company is engaged in, in purchase to permit the overseas investor to analyse and choose no matter if or not to make a prior filing.

Even more, if an trader is relying on the “General Exemption”, due to the fact acquisitions of equity passions for the function of violating the non-managerial involvement conditions are not suitable for prior filing exemptions, caution really should be exercised if the proper to appoint directors or the suitable to acquire specific data is presented for in the expenditure agreements.

3. Observer vs Director

Due to the fact any affirmative vote by a international trader with regard to a proposal to elect these international investor, or a carefully relevant human being of these types of international investor, as a director is 1 of the Restricted Steps, it is very likely that physical exercise by a foreign trader of board nomination legal rights with regard to a Japanese firm engaged in a Limited Enterprise pursuant to the articles or blog posts of incorporation or a shareholders agreement now calls for prior filing. According to an answer from the Ministry of Finance given via the community remark procedure, whether or not these types of overseas investor in actuality has a correct to appoint particular nominee directors can be broadly interpreted, so startups could choose offering an observer ideal in its place, to steer clear of such prior submitting necessity.

4. View Out for Issues with Exit Route

Equally Japan-centered startups and non-Japanese traders must also take note that prior submitting necessities for the Limited Steps could most likely have an effect on their exit path, because any affirmative vote by the foreign investor with regard to a proposal for an M&A exit, such as small business transfer (jigyou jouto), merger, corporation split (kaisha bunkatsu) or identical transaction, could be thought of a Restricted Action.

In accordance to an answer from the Ministry of Finance given via the public comment technique, it is usually understood that any affirmative vote referred to in this article is constrained to votes at the shareholders assembly in which the proposal was produced by the pertinent overseas investor by itself or as a result of other shareholders. As this kind of, usually talking, the exercise of consent rights under protective provisions of the shareholders arrangement really should not be deemed a Limited Motion. Having said that, this is a lot more of a info-and-situations exam, so very careful critique should be performed for just about every transaction.


While the prior filing exemptions released by the Amended Ordinances go some way towards easing the regulatory stress on international traders in shown Japanese businesses, the surroundings for private fairness and enterprise funds is considerably less forgiving. In specific, overseas investors will probable discover it difficult to guide enterprise funds financings devoid of triggering prior filing obligations unless of course they are inclined to forego the customary board seat and sure info legal rights. The added necessity of prior filing before having the Restricted Steps described earlier mentioned further restricts the involvement of overseas traders in the governance of the Japanese providers they devote in.

As a final result, individuals seeking to invest in unlisted Japanese corporations should really figure out at an early phase no matter if they are engaged in a Restricted Organization. If so, budget extra time and money not only for the filling by itself but for how this filing can complicate the transaction alone. For instance, financings that would generally be signed and consummated concurrently could have to be reworked to consist of an interim interval to allow for the ready period of time immediately after prior submitting.


1 This “full implementation” means that, when the Amended Ordinances have been in power given that May well 8, June 7 represents to date on and following which Japanese authorities will essentially use them.

2 There is no de minimis threshold to cause prior notification prerequisites with respect to investments into unlisted companies by foreign investors. By distinction, foreign buyers in detailed businesses are only subject matter to this prerequisite if, as a outcome of the investment, they maintain at the very least 1% of the stated organization post-closing (this was decreased from 10% by the FEFTA Modification).

3 The scope of “closely similar person” differs dependent on regardless of whether these kinds of proposals are created by a international trader by itself or as a result of a third bash requested by this sort of foreign trader, or by a third bash by itself (the scope is wider in the previous case).

4 Or, when a proxy pertaining to voting rights in a stated Japanese business is granted to a foreign trader by individuals other than other international buyers, the place there is 10% or additional (including the share of the voting rights held by a carefully related particular person) of the voting rights of the investee enterprise.

5 The definition of “closely-associated person” differs depending on regardless of whether the proposal in question is created by the overseas investor itself or through a 3rd occasion questioned by these types of overseas investor, or by a 3rd celebration itself (the definition is wider in the former scenario).